The crawl policy is one of the most important and powerful concepts in Starbelly. A policy controls the crawler’s behavior and decision making, guiding which links the crawler follows, what kinds of resources it downloads, and how long or how far it runs. When you start a crawl job, you must specify which policy that job should use.

In this part of the documentation, we take a look at the features of the crawl policy. To begin, click Policy in the Starbelly menu, then click on an existing policy to view it, or click New Policy to create a new policy.


The authentication policy determines how a crawler can authenticate itself to a web site. When the crawler sees a domain in a crawl for the first time, it checks to see if it has any credentials for that domain. (See the configuration of Credentials for more information.) If it does, it picks one of the appropriate credentials at random and tries to login with it. Some login forms may require a CAPTCHA. In those cases, you may configure a CAPTCHA solver and specify that solver in the policy.


Robots.txt is a standard for specifying how crawlers should interact with websites. By default, Starbelly will attempt to download a robots.txt from each domain that it visits, and it will obey the directives of any such files that it finds. In some circumstances, however, such as crawling some old sites, it may be useful to ignore or even invert the directives in a site’s robots.txt, which you can configure using the policy.

URL Normalization

The crawler attempts to avoid crawling the same URL multiple times. If two links contain exactly identical URLs, then the crawler will only download that resource once. On some sites, especially dynamically generated sites, multiple URLs may refer to the same resource and differ only in the order of URL query parameters or the values of semantically meaningless query parameters like session IDs.

The URL normalization policy allows you to control this behavior. When enabled, the crawler normalizes URLS using a number of techniques, including:

  • sorting query parameters alphabetically
  • upper case percent encodings
  • remove query fragments
  • etc.

You may specify URL query parameters that should be discarded during normalization. By default, the crawler discards several common session ID parameters. Alternatively, you can disable URL normalization completely, although this may result in lots of duplicated downloads.

URL Rules

The URL rules policy controls how a crawler selects links to follow. For each page that is downloaded, the crawler extracts candidate links. For each candidate link, the crawler checks the rules one-by-one until a rule matches, then the crawler applies the matching rule.

For example, the default Deep Crawl policy contains two URL rules:

  1. If the URL matches the regex ^https?://({SEED_DOMAINS})/ then add 1.0.
  2. Else multiply by 0.0.

Let’s say the URL is seeded with http://foo.com/bar. It downloads this document and assigns it a cost of 1.0. Cost is roughly similar to the concept of crawl depth in other crawlers, but it is a bit more sophisticated. Each link is assigned a cost based on the cost of the document where it was found and the URL rule that it matches. If a link cost evaluates to zero, then the link is thrown away. If the link is greater than zero but less than the “Max Cost” specified in the crawl policy, then the crawler schedules the link to be fetched. Links are fetched roughly in order of cost, so lower-cost items are typically fetched before higher-cost items.

After the crawler downloads the document at http://foo.com/bar, it checks each link in that document against the URL rules in the policy. For example, if the link matches the regex in rule #1, then the link will be given a score of 2.0: the rule says to add 1.0 to the cost of its parent (which was 1.0).

If the link matches rule #2, then that rule says to multiply the parent’s cost by zero. This results in the new cost being set to zero, and the crawler discards links where the cost is zero, so the link will not be followed.

Although the URL rules are a bit complicated at first, they turn out to be a very powerful way to guide the crawler. For example, if we step back a bit and consider the effect of the two rules above, we see that it follows links inside the seed domain and does not follow links outside the seed domain. In other words, this is a deep crawl!

If we replace the two rules here with just a single rule that says “Always add 1.0” , then that would result in a broad crawl policy! In fact, you can go look at the default Broad Crawl policy included in Starbelly to confirm that this is how it works.

User Agents

When the crawler downloads a resource, it sends a User Agent string in the headers. By default, Starbelly sends a user agent that identifies itself with a version number and includes a URL to its source code repository. You may customize what user agent is sent using the policy. If you include multiple user agent strings, one will be chosen at random for each request.

Proxy Rules

By default, the crawler downloads resources directly from their hosts. In some cases, you may want to proxy requests through an intermediary. The Proxy Rules specify which proxy server should be used for which request, similar to the URL Rules above.

MIME Type Rules

While URL Rules determine which links to follow, MIME Type Rules determine what types of resources to download. By default, the crawler only downloads resources that have a MIME type matching the regex ^text/, which matches plain text and HTML resources. If you want the crawler to download images, for example, then you would add a new rule like ^image/* that would match GIF, JPEG, and PNG resources.

The MIME type of a resource is determined by inspecting the Content-Type header, which means that MIME Type Rules are not applied until after the crawler downloads headers for a resource. If the crawler determines that a resource should not be downloaded, then the crawler closes the connection and discards any data that has already been downloaded.


The Limits policy specifies limits on how far and how long the crawl should run. If a limit is left blank, then that limit will not be applied to the crawl.

  • Max cost: the crawler will not follow links that have a cost greater than the one specified here.
  • Max duration: the maximum amount of time the crawler should run, in seconds.
  • Max items: the maximum number of items that the crawler should download. This number includes successes, errors, and exceptions.